Let’s start with the understanding of the cataract, its symptoms and diagnoses and only then we will move on to the treatment of this disease. The cataract is a quite widespread pathology of eyes, which is caused not only by lenticular opacity but also by the loss of its elasticity. This process often leads to various visual impairments.
Nowadays the cataract is one of the most widespread diseases of eyes. Older persons are most exposed to this disease. However, the cataract infection cases are increasingly finding among young people. This is the reason why the request “cataract reasons symptoms treatment” is becoming increasingly popular among users of the Internet.
Types and degrees of the cataract
There are several classifications of this disease. One of them is based on how the person got the cataract: whether it was congenital or lifetime. In most cases, the disease is gotten. Children with the cataract diagnosis are born quite seldom.
The disease itself is not the reason for medication as the problem with crystalline lens of an eye harms vision of the person very seldom. However, there are also exceptional cases when the specialist recognizes a complex form of the cataract, which can lead to a total blindness – in that case, an immediate treatment should be started.
The turbidity happening at the cataract can be located on the poles and nucleus of lens. Sometimes there are cases of alternation of healthy tissues with the struck ones – in that case, there is a lammeral or zonular cataract. Such diagnosis as a capsular cataract says that only the forward capsule of an eye grows turbid.
There is also a membranous cataract, which is characterized by the formation of a turbid membrane at an adherence of two capsules of crystalline lens: front and back. If damage extended to all tissue of crystalline lens, it is a total cataract.
The disease develops gradually. There are 4 stages of the disease development differing with the degree of damage of crystalline lens tissues, as well as the degree of influence on the person’s vision:
The first stage is called initial. It differs by the transparency of crystalline lens as the processes of damaging of its tissues just begin, and the acuity of vision retains;
The second stage is called an immature cataract at which begins the lenticular opacity and decreasing of the acuity of vision;
The third stage is called a mature cataract. At this stage of progression of the disease, there are multiple damages of crystalline lens tissues occupying almost all its zone. The person with the mature cataract notes a considerable decrease in the acuity of vision.
The fourth stage is an overripe cataract at which crystalline lens fibers completely fall apart and the capsule gets a folded form.
Why does the cataract occur?
The main reason causing emergence and development of the disease is an aging of a human body. The human crystalline lens is arranged in such a way that virtually all have a problem with its turbidity. The greatest percent of people having the cataract is found after the age of 65 years. However, the disease can develop also at an earlier age. Such factors can influence on it:
- existence of other diseases of eyes;
- genetic predisposition;
- injuries of eyes of various degrees of severity;
- ray, ultra-violet and SHF radiation which are harmful to a human eye;
- existence of addictions;
- bad ecology.
A long reception of medicines can provide the beginning of the cataract as well. In addition, violations in work of endocrine system among which you should note diabetes and a metabolic disorder often have resulted in the disease.
All the things described above belong to the acquired cataract. It is still impossible to speak about the reasons of a congenital cataract, as they are not studied yet. Among the most probable causes, when the child is born with the cataract, you should note the genetics and an infection postponed in the pre-natal period.
How can the cataract be diagnosed?
Most often, the specialist finds the cataract when the patient complains of an acuity of vision fall. However, there are cases when the disease does not affect the acuity of vision of the person as damage captured another side of the crystalline lens. First “red flag” for you is an emergence of “flies” before your eyes. This symptom is often connected with a tension of vision. Vision decrease leads to double vision and blurring of objects, people have difficulties during the work with small items. It is becoming more difficult to read, watch TV and work the personal computer.
It is worth addressing the specialist when you note problems with perception of color or strengthening of the sensitivity of eyes to light – these disturbing symptoms can lead to a developing of the cataract. The cataract can be diagnosed also by the change of your pupil’s appearance: gradually with the development of the disease, it starts loosing color, becoming completely white.
However, only the highly skilled ophthalmologist can diagnose the cataract. The doctor can already suspect the progressive disease during an ordinary examination of eye grounds. However, it is worth conducting eye biomicroscopy to make the correct diagnosis.
This procedure is painless. The doctor investigates your eye, using a light slit lamp. The narrow light beam of the lamp helps him to know about the state of your eyeball and all its tissues.
Treatment of the cataract and cataract surgery
The cataract in the initial stages means often only use of special eye drops. Often ophthalmologists prescribe the patients Viceinum, Quinax and other medicines. Eye drops help to slow down progressing of the disease. Patients note improvement of eyes condition. However, such medicines cannot cure crystalline lens disease completely.
Today there is only one way of full treatment of the cataract – it is an operation. At the same time, operations can be made in the different ways, but they pursue one aim – removing the crystalline lens of an eye affected with the disease and replacing it with an artificial one. Cataract surgery do not demand a lot of time and cause problems. At the same time, vision is restored in 100 per cent of cases.
Complications after the cataract
The cataract is dangerous first of all by possible complications among which there is such widespread disease as secondary glaucoma. This complication is caused by the increase of crystalline lens, which happens to some patients with the cataract. The increased crystalline lens leads to a delay and accumulation of liquid and, as a result – to increased pressure inside an eye.
Secondary glaucoma can lead to a total blindness of the person. Unfortunately, even at the modern stage of its development, the medicine is not able to cure blindness, which arose because of the development of secondary glaucoma.
Seldom there are complications after the operation. The patient can have astigmatism, hemorrhage and even retinal detachment. For this reason, it is important to be under medical supervision during the post-operational period.